Black holes are cosmic objects, the gravitational attraction of which is so strong that even objects moving at the speed of light cannot leave them. Today, there are several types of black holes in the Universe: primordial, quantum, stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.
It is believed that the speed of rotation of these space objects is on average 150 thousand km / s, or 50% of the speed of light. However, a new study found that supermassive holes in the center of galaxies rotate at the “theoretical limit.”
This means that black holes grow mainly by “devouring” objects that are near them, and not by merging with other holes. Scientists have now calculated how efficiently fast-growing supermassive black holes convert the matter they absorb into radiation, Yaledailynews reports .
The study also reveals the mystery of the early universe, explaining why certain areas are still hidden from us.
“Since light travels at the ultimate speed, the further we look into the Universe, the further we look back in time,” the astronomers explained. However, it is impossible to look into the era immediately after the Big Bang, when the Universe was very hot.
As the experts explained, at that time the light was reflected from free electrons, and the outer space itself was “ionized”, so today this light cannot be seen through telescopes.
However, when the universe cooled down, ionization went away. This period was called the Dark Ages. Only 150 million – 1 billion years after the Big Bang, stars and galaxies that are visible in the Universe today began to form.
These hot new objects re-ionized hydrogen, separating protons and electrons, “freeing” the light waves that astronomers can now observe.
The main question is whether it was the formation of galaxies or a type of supermassive black holes called quasars that contributed more to this reionization process. New research has helped find the answer. “Galaxies are largely responsible for the reionization of the universe,” the scientists said.
Earlier, a team of astrophysicists published a picture showing in detail the ejections of a supermassive black hole with a powerful jet stream erupting from it.
This phenomenon can be observed when matter falls into a black hole, as a result of which part of the matter is accelerated almost to the speed of light.